Archive for the ‘war crimes’ Category


Counting World War death caused by direct and indirect human violence will never ever give us exact numbers, still we can know the magnitude of teh histroical event, whereby even what was the beginnening and what was teh end date remain something that is not fixed… I show here just grand total numbers and there main differences low/high numbers. My source is a very well documented Wikipedia page (English version) “World War 1 casualties.” (left hand QRcode has the direct link).

(It started with a message I wrote for my Facebook  timeline reacting to the picture below just appearing on the internet; the picture expressed my disgust for all the imperial state pomp shown in mass media… so I wrote the following…)


For documentation of this  FEMEN and other actions by them click on image to go to their web-site

Centenary of mass butchery in the name of empire nations…
“the hand writing is on the body”…

away with the glorification of the battlefield, the courage of soldiers and how we are indebted to their futile sacrifice for whatever honoured pride nations… who speaks about those who refused to be called to arms, those who refused to climb out of the trenches right into the spitting canons and had to be forced at gunpoint by “their” officers, about the mutineers on all fronts, at times across the lines of the fronts…

World War I was – statistically speaking in fatalities – a predominant male war enterprise and I find it liberating to read these handwritings on soft female bodies at this occasion to break through the pantsers of official historical commemorations.

{message to the potential Facebook censors of the photograph… censoring this picture can be considered a warcrime; it is also a picture that has been widely spread though main mass media today, so censoring would be a futile act as well}

More photo documentation in the Daily Mirror that has this contextual info: “Bare-breasted feminist activists were arrested after staging a protest against world leaders at a World War 1 remembrance ceremony. The Ukrainian radical activist group ‘FEMEN’ were demonstrating outside the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France where world leaders were commemorating the 100th anniversary of WW1.
Their stunt on Saturday morning began with the topless radical feminists jumping out of a car at the Place de l’Etoile before climbing the barriers of the platform. Beneath the arc is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, which plays host to an annual commemoration event marking the anniversary of the 1918 armistice signed by Germany and the Entente Powers. This is where 70 world leaders are expected to attend the ceremony marking the centenary of the war’s armistice on Sunday. “


added note

the slogan taken from Orwell’s 1984 in poster format…


It is about the ‘doublethink’ of ‘newspeak’ … at the time of publishing his book “1984” in 1949 Orwell had very much the Soviet Union in mind as a totalitarian empire… which practiced such brainwashing as is implicit with ‘double truth’… now in a next century we can notice that the art of ;doublethink’ is still with us…

What to think of this head-line in the Washington Post of 11/11/2018 :

“Macron denounces nationalism as a ‘betrayal of patriotism’ in rebuke to Trump at WWI remembrance”

… so ‘nationalism’ is the dirty word here and ‘patriotism’ the good one. Let’s check some standard definitions:

– “Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.”

– “Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.”

Both definitions come from the English language Wikipedia pages for these words/notions. So where lays the supposed opposed meaning of “homeland” and “a particular nation” … is ‘a particular nation’ not also a ‘homeland’?

Indeed Macron uses doublethink and doublespeak, opposing the notion of patriotism and nationalism as they are only on the opposite sides of the same coin. As what any patriot or nationalist will say to those who come with criticism: “Love It or Leave It.”

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I republish this news-tableau originally launched on 4 September, 2013 on my Flickr page. It had 11,965 views since then.  It takes part in a debate in the aftermath of  a retaliation attack of USA and allies on Syrian governmental targets, as a punishment for the use of chemical weapons on the city of Ghouta on 21 August, 2013, allegedly by Syrian government forces. An attack that caused over seven hundred deaths. This was not the first and not the last attack with chemical weapons. A useful overview of all 80 or so cases – since October 2012 – can be found on a dedicated Wikipedia page “Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian Civil War” whereby it becomes clear that some cases are disputed and often the perpetrator of an attack using chemical weapons can not with full certainty be pointed at. Indeed the ‘news’ or ‘fakes news’ battles around these chemical attacks are poisonous themselves. When we take the highest estimation of casualties of the Syrian Civil Ear, since its start in the year 2011 then – according to the United Nations and the Arab League envoy to Syria, the total number of death is 400.000
The total number of deaths by the use of chemical warfare in Syria using the data of the list on Wikipedia cited above, plus the latest (alleged) attack on Douma is 2002 (again I take the highest estimates). Bombardments and (other) usage of high explosives may have caused – directly and indirectly – the highest death toll, whereby it is irrelevant for a victim if she/he was targeted or an unwanted side effect of an attack, a “collateral victim”. As my argument below is about the hysteric hypocrisy in the media and by ‘Western governments’, here the three chemical weapon attacks that did produce the highest numbers of deadly victims:
1) Ghouta (area) 21/8/2013: 800 + (numbers differ enormously: lowest 281, highest 1729)
2) Khan Shaykhun 4/4/2017: 100
3) Douma 7/4/2018: 70


There Are No Humanitarian Weapons – biggest lie of these days “THE GRADING OF KILLING METHODS IN SYRIA” as if Chemical Weapons are worse than Conventional Weapons as if there is a humanitarian red-line that must not be crossed in warfare.

Pondering for days how to expose THE BIGGEST LIE OF THESE DAYS “THE GRADING OF KILLING METHODS IN SYRIA” as if death by the dagger, sword, machete, pistol, riffle, mortar, land mine, machine gun, cannon, missile, aerial bombing, napalm, arson, dynamite, nitro glycerine, and hundreds of other explosives, electronic shocks and nuclear explosion, are any better. Dead is dead, also for those who remember the killed ones personally, those who stay behind.


HOW BRAINWASHED IS EVERYBODY that many start to doubt if they should support a military intervention of the Americans and their Allies in Syria. How brainwashed they must be when using the big number of violent death (just over 100.000) in Syria from the UN Human Right Research WITHOUT TAKING IN ACCOUNT WHO HAS BEEN KILLING WHO, how many of these killings were the result of all kind of inner strives and crimes by all sort of freedom fighters equally repulsive as committed by the governmental troops of Bashir Al-Assad. How naive to think that after the launching of missiles on Assad regime targets, civil war and terrorism will end in Syria.

The most massive use of chemical warfare in the narrow sense was last century in a war between Iran and Iraq that lasted 8 years and took over one million victims, of which tens of thousands died because of the use of chemical warfare methods, mainly against soldiers, but also in some cases against civilians, mainly in Iran, but also in Iraq itself, whereby also Iran attempted to use chemical warfare agents. The Iran Iraq War of the eighties last century did not trigger any call of ‘intervention’ and hardly any protest in the world. In the years 1987/88 there has been – well documented – tactical support by USA military and CIA personal for Iraq gas attacks on Iranian troops. There was no red-line then under that geo-political circumstances.

Because napalm, agent orange and depleted uranium weapons, and several kinds of so called nerve gasses for crowd control do fall outside of the international acclaimed definition of ‘chemical warfare’, the Western democracies think they can proudly pose as humanitarian warriors. Less forget the massive use of these human killing substances and devices in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Algerian War, Madagascar, the Gulf War, the Iraq War… by all those humanitarian generals of the USA and its allies.

Let alone that we recall all the devilish plans that have been prepared, but not executed, or only partly, of devastating large agricultural zones, of breaking irrigation dams, of bombing hydro-electrical dams, drowning thousands, triggering famines, ill health and massive death of illnesses like TB and Cholera, from Korea to Indochina.

Miles of historical, juridical, medical and military books and reports can be dragged in to support this kind of argumentation, to rip away the blindfold of public opinion as it is daily put in position and fastened by the major media.


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SANA Syrian Arab News Agency voice of the Assad regime focusses on what they call US-led-international-coalition warplanes that did bomb Deir Ezzor (7th largest city in the country, orth-east of Damascus), also SANA publishes about Turkish artillery and aerial bombardments in the Syrian border areas with Turkey under Kurdish influence, while Western media publish about the Assad regime attacks, supported by their Russian allies, like the massacre of the last day which saw bombardments of an enclave near Damascus held by anti-Assad forces, Ghouta.

This is what one calls a ‘proxy war’: “a conflict between two states or non-state actors where neither entity directly engages the other. It encompasses two separate powers utilizing external strife to somehow attack the interests or territorial holdings of the other.” [Wikipedia]
… yes we do not need to to doubt whether loads of bombs have been dropped down on human habitat, we may doubt who did it, why, how, what went as planned, what went wrong, also we can observe that each side in the war will point to a massacre committed by the other party , while being silent about their carnage they wrought themselves …
some may even become pro-Assad again, just to stop the warfare, not because they have any sympathy for his murderous rule. That is how far we came with a quick & easy Spring Liberation of Syria in 2011 with a death toll which is estimated to be between 350,000 and 480,000 ….

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The Russians have just added their newest stealth warplane Su-57 to the Syrian Country Wide Laboratory for Advanced Weapon Systems.

Russia has tested over 200 new types of arms in Syria during its campaign in support of President Bashar al-Assad, a senior lawmaker said Thursday, as Moscow was accused of taking part in air strikes against rebel-held Eastern Ghouta. “As we helped the brotherly Syrian people, we tested over 200 new types of weapons,” said Vladimir Shamanov, a former commander of Russia’s airborne troops who now serves as head of the Russian Duma’s defence committee. “It’s not an accident that today they are coming to us from many directions to purchase our weapons, including countries that are not our allies,” he said. “Today our military-industrial complex made our army look in a way we can be proud of,” he said. Russia, a close ally of the Syrian government in the protracted multi-front war, has been accused of indiscriminate bombing throughout the conflict causing massive casualties. The latest criticism focuses on the air strikes against the enclave of Eastern Ghouta, where more than 350 civilians have been killed in five days, but the Kremlin denied involvement in the regime-led assault.
website defencetalk Friday February 23, 2018

Super power strive makes that each introduction of a new or stronger weapon system will be countered by the other side in this ‘proxy war’ that helps the Assad dicatorship survive for 7 years now. So osnetdaily.com which carries a lot of miliary news report today (February 23, 2018) reports:

F-22 Stealth Jets and Russian Su-35S Flankers have already been Shadow Boxing Over Syria for a while now, so this gamble by Putin can be understood as raising the stakes in the intelligence war following the devastating US attack on Russian mercenaries in the Euphrates a while ago, given the fact that F-22 jets participated in that bombing during Feb. 9 this year. The SU-57 could be used to spy, and test its innovative radar arrangement on the F-22. Russia tested ‘over 200 new weapons’ in Syria during the war, and it most likely wants to market the Su-57, which is still a prototype, as having been ‘combat-tested’ in a ‘real battlefield’. The F-22 is less maneuverable then its Russian opponent and has smaller weapon bays. On the other hand, the SU-57 has a radar cross section of about 0.1 square meters – far less stealthy then the F-22’s 0.0001 square meters. Its engines are not positioned in a stealthy manner and have no thermal sleeves to reduce heat signature. In fact, the platform’s final engines are still under development and won’t be available before 2025. For homeland airspace defense purposes, rear-aspect stealth is less important than other aspects and other locations, thus should theoretically suffice for defending Russia against intruders from western Europe in a future war.

It leaves the Syrian non-combattant, civilian population like testing-rats in a laboratory, caged in their encircled towns and villages, hostage of one of the surviving war-lord enclaves in the conflict. Humans as guinea pigs to test the effectivity of murderous weapons (including all the so called collateral victims)… whereby one needs also to say that whole sale slaughter of any troops pushed in the theatre of war is a criminal act as well and not a victory to be celebrated.


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Situated next to the Dutch town of The Hague well known for its international peace and justice institutions, close to the beach with the sea within hearing distance. Rooms with all comfort. Inquiries and bookings via our agency ICC-CPI.INT.

* HOTEL شيفينينغن الكتاب الآن قبل فوات الأوان! (المحكمة الجنائية الدولية المحكمة الجنائية الدولية / الضمان).

تقع بالقرب من مدينة لاهاي الهولندية من أجل السلام الدولية المعروفة ومؤسسات العدالة، وعلى مقربة من الشاطئ مع البحر ضمن مسافة السمع. غرف مع جميع وسائل الراحة. الاستفسارات والحجوزات عبر لدينا وكالة للمحكمة الجنائية الدولية CPI.INT.

Here are some pictures of our facilities / وهنا بعض الصور من مرافقنا:

Neo-classical style building dating back to the year 1883. النيو كلاسيكية بناء نمط يعود تاريخها إلى 1883 سنة

Our lobby. لدينا اللوبي.

One of our comfortable rooms. واحدة من الغرف المريحة.

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I have a hard time understanding the aerial combat over Israel and Gaza. What is the idea of the Palestinian brigades to fire their low tech rockets to penetrate the Iron Shield protected area of Israel? 90% of such rockets – it is said – are now destroyed in mid air by the the Israeli defence system, whereas the people in Gaza have no defence whatsoever against incoming retaliation bombardments from the endless military arsenal of Israel. The picture with the dog in the foreground and the smoke trail of the Israeli anti-rocket system intercepting a Gaza-strip fired rocket, was taken on Saturday the 9th of April 2011 in the field near Ashkelon in Israel with the following command: “Nicole was out walking her dogs when she heard the distant siren and the booms. In the fields there is nowhere to hide, so she just watched the Iron Dome shooting the rocket out of the sky, leaving a puff and white smoke trail.” (3)

I need two arms and two fingers to point at all those despicable missile launchers. The only ones gaining from this ‘iron brains game’ is the weapon industry that uses the territories of Israel and Gaza as a testing grounds for the most advanced military products as is summarised in these visuals from trade brochures…

More than one hundred rockets fired from Gaza at Israeli territory, 6 Israelis’s wounded, retaliation attacks on Gaza 21 dead (March 12, 2012). There must be an immense hatred for all those ‘iron brains’ launching their explosive devices, from whatever side, for whatever ideological or security claim. But, who can earnestly express such a view, either in Israel or Gaza?

click picture for link to information source as shown below: al-akhbar.com

<quote>Wounded Palestinian children are seen in a hospital in the northern Gaza Strip, after an Israeli airstrike 12 March 2012. (…) Israeli airstrikes killed an additional three people in the Gaza Strip overnight, including a teenage boy, bringing the total death toll to 21 after three days of attacks on the Hamas-controlled territory.</quote>

 <quote>”A drone strike hit a group of students who were walking by empty land on their way to school,” he told AFP, saying six others had been injured, two of whom were in critical condition. The latest killings came after another schoolboy, 12-year-old Ayoub Assaleya, was killed in an Israeli airstrike on a predominantly civilian neighborhood on Sunday in the Jabalya refugee camp, according to medics. His seven-year-old cousin was injured in the attack and taken to Kamal Adwan hospital in Jabalya, north Gaza.</quote>

 <quote>Earlier, the Israeli army said that it had targeted a “terrorist squad” preparing to fire rockets from northern Gaza. It also confirmed a direct hit on “two rocket launching sites, in the northern Gaza Strip, used by terror organizations.” Gaza militants have responded to Israeli airstrikes with more than 100 rockets since Friday, injuring six Israelis, one of them seriously. Islamic Jihad and the Popular Resistance Committees said it had fired rockets and mortars into Israel on Friday and Saturday.</quote>

Notes, pictures with their original caption, click pictures to see original context of images:

(1) “Masked Palestinian militants from Islamic Jihad run with homemade rockets to put in place before later firing them into Israel on the outskirts of Gaza City, Saturday, Dec. 20, 2008. (AP Photo/Ashraf Amra)”

(2) “A battery of Iron Dome anti-aircraft missile launches from the town of Ashdod, Israel, Palestine to intercept a missile. / EFE”

(3) “Nicole’s dog Heidi and the Iron Dome defense system in action in the background.”

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新的一年大爆炸的奢侈品是傳統的中國火藥的發明 (luxury of new year big bangs is the legacy of the invention of Chinese gunpowder)

The Netherlands is part of what can be called ‘the European war-exempted-zone’. Firework is a popular craze here from 10 in the morning December 31 to 2 at night January 1, to drive out the old year. 60 to 70 million Euro value of explosives goes up in the air, 200 to 300 eye operation as a result, 20 to 30 blind, hardly any dead. Many youngsters do test their ammunition before hand, especially near my house next top a night outgoing district. Most of the Dutch have no direct war or terrorism connotation when they here a big bang nearby in these last days of the year, though the Party for the Animals and Green Left have called for a total ban on private/personal firework use.

Firework sales for New Years Eve in the Netherlands in 1959 as I remember it as a boy counting all the pocket money I have saved and scanning the window of the only shop or so in town for my acquisitions. My parents knew the sound of real big bangs and my mother told me how she stand on the balcony of her house in The Hague and patting my back to make me not afraid of the bangs and billowing smoke at the horizon: the big mistake of a RAF bombardment hitting a civilian quarter (Bezuiden Hout) of The Hague right opposite the home of my grand mother. I was just a baby so can not remember it. I did play in the ruins - left for a decade or so - as a kid when staying with my grand mother... she did not appreciate much my rejoicing of "the ban bangs"...

Enjoying explosives is a real LUXURY as can be learned from the United Nations bulletin ‘ExplosiveWeapons.info’ published by the United Nations Disarmament Research Institute in Geneva. The “End of Year Explosive Violence Review” is summing it up: “Sadly, in over 70 countries, explosive weapons have caused severe harm to individuals and communities and furthered suffering by damaging vital infrastructure. But recognition is growing that the use of explosive weapons in places where civilians live, work or gather constitutes a serious humanitarian problem that needs to be addressed.”

See http://explosiveweapons.info/2011/12/29/end-of-year-explosive-violence-review/

Not only in the Netherlands, there are initiatives to come to a ban on firework as a citizen’s demand,  in all parts of the world similar initiatives have been taken, Philippines, New Zealand, Great Britain, South Africa, Italy, the United States, which can be read about in detail on the web site of  stop-fireworks.org, Some initiatives propose alternative forms of New Year celebration like in the USA to bang drums instead of firing explosives…

Fireworks in the Binnen Bantammerstraat part of the then still tiny Chinese Quarter of Amsterdam in the winter of 1971-72, a photograph by Koen Wessing (1942-2011).

When living in Amsterdam in the early seventies next to the small Chinese quarter, still growing at that time around the Binnen Bantammerstraat, there was always a big display of Chinese fireworks by the restaurant holders in that street on Western calendar New Years Eve. The Chinese had these long rolls of big firecrackers, one after another, we called them ‘pakora’s’, sometimes hung from the top of the house fronts or all along the street, twelve and more meter long. There was also the swaying around of firework on ropes within a dense circle in a crowd of people, the first ranks shrieking back each time a mass of glowing and sputtering ‘saltpeter’ passed their faces. The next morning the whole Chinese area looked like covered with a deep soft red carpet, with eager youngsters rummaging around to fire the ones that failed to explode during midnight. We had a squatted neighbourhood action centre straight next to this scene and always did throw new year midnight parties there. The photographer of this picture Koen Wessing was one of the supporters of our action group and it was only today I discovered this photograph by him, while doing a little research for this article.

The first part of this year I lived and worked for half a year in Hong Kong and on the first day of Chinese New year I was waiting for a massive popular display of fire work in my neighbourhood close to the popular district of Shek Kip Mei in Kowloon. To my surprise nothing happened at all, the only fireworks visible were the ones on the television set. The city panorama below my apartment – situated on a rock with a wide view – remained completely empty. It was only later I learned that all firework in the then Crown Colony of Hong Kong of the Brits had been forbidden in 1967, a year that almost saw a Cultural Revolution Rising in Hong Kong by local Maoists. Gunpowder of firework had been used in that turbulent year to make street bombs that would be exploded to raise the level of unrest in the city. That firework ban has remained in force ever since, with only some exceptions for the inhabitants of Hong Kong’s New territories villages during their special traditional spring and summer festivals.

A labour dispute at a factory making artificial plastic flowers in San Po Kong, Kowloon was the event triggering the 1967 Hong Kong rising; production output levels being raised for the same wage; breakdown hours of machines as non paid work time and so on...The picture taken May 11 1967 shows police forces firing tear gas grenades and wooden bullets at demonstrators assembling in front of the high rise factory building. Objects had been dropped on some police men before from the rooftops. A young boy later was beaten up and died.

When studying more of the history of the conflict in 1967 (“Hong Kong’s watershed: the 1967 riots” by Gary Ka-wai Cheung; 2009) I learned that some of those street bombs had warning signs on them (like “compatriots do not come close”) when planted, but the message was written in Chinese characters only. Most of these bombs were primitive home-made contraptions on the basis of gunpowder taken from firework stock (others used gunpowder used by fishermen). Firework bombs were most often thrown directly at colonial targets, mostly police stations and of the ones planted in the street many were fake bomb, just to “fire” social unrest. During almost a year 8352 suspected bombs had been planted of which only 1420 proved to be “genuine”, 1167 targeted the colonial police force, 253 were detonated in an uncontrolled way. The bombs hailed by the underground Maoist Communist Party of Hong Kong as a form of “People’s Warfare” could not fail to also hit ‘the people’ themselves and when in August 1967 a street bomb killed an eight year girl and a two year old boy, the public reaction backfired at the anti-colonial insurgents. An existing relative sympathy under broad layers of the population for the cause of these left wing revolutionaries fighting the colonial power, was progressively lost. The disruption of the  daily life in the colony by the firework bombs -which were in a military sense minor weapons – had been significant. Hindering traffic and most of all having a psychological impact. At a certain moment during that year the British governor even worked secretly on a new emergency evacuation plan,  for the non Chinese population, just in case. In the end it proved that the local underground Communist Party had for a great deal acted on their own and failed to generated the needed support from party authorities in Bejing. Mainland China was – at that time –  too much in a political turmoil with lots of fractional infighting, to allow itself to take the small Colony of Hong Kong by force. Neo-colonial Hong Kong, “the goose with the golden eggs” was of more importance to the Mainland China than a banking, manufacturing and trading centre, which would certainly collapse after a forceful take-over.

Till this very day, the firework bombs remain a legacy associated with the Communist Party of Hong Kong, that, though not formally part of the restraint political landscape of Hong Kong (see “Underground front: the Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong” by Christine Loh; 2010), is the central force of power in what is now The ‘Special Administrative Region of China Hong Kong’ (SAR Hong Kong). The highest governmental functions in SAR Hong Kong are reserved for (secret) Communist Party members only. As the history of this central core of Hong Kong power remains covered in secretive haze, debatable events in its history remain a subject which is mostly  avoided. Who –  for instance – visits the Hong Kong Historical Museum will find just one or two photographs of the 1967 struggle with a superficial caption. In popular memory though, the firework bombs and the effects of some indiscriminate targeting of the primitive firework bombs from 1967, lingers on.

A painted silk flag from the 10th century in China showing gunpowder used as a weapon on the end of a sort of spear gun.

Saltpeter  (potassium nitrate) is a substance that forms through the decomposition of organic materials, a whitish salt like material since long known for its quality of burning fiercely even in non favourite circumstances for  fire. We know that Taoist alchemists in China were experimenting with it already in the 8th century in their quest for life prolonging elixirs. While trying out all kind of combinations of substances and materials, they discovered the explosive properties of mixing  saltpeter with sulphur and charcoal. The mix we call now in English ‘gunpowder’ (‘buskruit’ in Dutch *). Aside from try-outs  to swallow small quantities as a medicine, the aesthetic and ceremonial qualities of the substance were discovered and all kind of ways to fire it for spectacular display were developed. Spring, Autumn and New Year festivals with their staged dances of mythical animals like dragons and lions, were amplified with display of fireworks. Bamboo tubes were used at first, which lead also to experiments to use the explosive mix for war purposes. First devices were spears with at the end bamboo tubes filled with gunpowder that were directed at an enemy during a battle. Soon more elaborate war use was found by finding out the propulsive qualities of certain mixes that could drive out one or more arrows from wooden containers. Closing up such bamboo containers would give yet another effect of bursting wood fibre and so also what we call now a grenade, has been invented over one thousand years ago.

Healing, celebration and warfare all used the same substance: gunpowder. Moments of celebration punctuated by explosions, but also new powerful bangs of explosions on the battlefield, which before was less loud with just clanging of lances, swords, shields and the shouts of warriors. Up to this very day the awe of a big bang may be just a carrier of celebration, but once someone has witnessed an explosion as a part of an act of terrorism or war, the aesthetic appreciation of a firework spectacle may be lost – for her or him – forever.

* Etymology of the Dutch word for ‘gunpowder’:
buskruit zn. ‘explosief poeder’
Mnl. bussen cruyt ‘buskruit’ [1441; Van der Meulen 1942a], busskruit ‘id.’ [1481-83; MNW bussecloot], met daarnaast vormen als donderbuspoeder [ca. 1400-50; MNW stampen], donderbuscruut, dondercruut [MNHW].
Het eerste lid is mnl. busse ‘(kamer in een) vuurwapen, vuurroer’, zie → bus 1; het tweede lid is mnl. cruyt ‘(tover)kruid’, zie → kruid, → kruit.
Buskruit werd in Europa vanaf de 14e eeuw gebruikt.

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